The latest study identifies particular genes in dogs that hold the potential to cure cancer. The largest-ever genome sequencing research of canine tumors was carried out by a group from the Broad Institute at Massachusetts Institute of Technology (MIT), Harvard University, and the University of Georgia.
To uncover the genetic abnormalities causing canine malignancies, the study, which was published in the journal Scientific Reports, analyzed tumor samples and real-world clinical genomic data from 671 domestic dogs diagnosed with cancer throughout the US.
Analyzing Genetic Data
Small molecule medications that have previously been licensed for use on cancer patients in humans can also target several of these hotspots. As a result, patients with canine cancer will have easier access to highly efficient precision therapies that can supplement or replace more conventional, one-size-fits-all treatment modalities like chemotherapy, radiation, or surgery.
Furthermore, the genetic information from canine tumors can also hasten the creation of precise cancer treatments for people. Additionally, the results revealed several previously unknown mutation hotspots in canine malignancies. Proving their capacity to accurately determine whether a tumor is somatic or germline based only on tumor tissue.
“This study provides the most comprehensive genomic sequencing data on canine cancers, including several previously unsequenced types, and serves as a much-needed resource for comparative oncology,” said Shaying Zhao, a professor at the University of Georgia and a co-author of the study.
More than 42,000 genetic alterations from 671 dogs of 96 different breeds were analyzed by the researchers among 23 major tumor forms.
The study’s researchers also found that canine malignancies and human tumors have eight mutational hotspots in oncogenes such as PIK3CA, KRAS, NRAS, BRAF, KIT, and EGFR. The majority of the genetic hotspots in dogs may be treated with small-molecule therapies that are licensed for use in humans, and information on canine cancer can be utilized to expedite the development of novel cancer medications for humans.